29 Apr 2011

Jawa architecture
Keratin,kraton comes from the word ke- ratu-an.originates that means place where the queen/king lives.
A palace near code river and winanga river.
Situated yogjakarta,Indonesia
Built from Jakarta Mangkubumi (sri sultan Hamengku Buwono 1) after  giyanti agreement   (1955)
between the Merapi Mountain and the South Sea. In the mind of the Javanese community, kraton is defined as center of the world that is described as center of the universe.
Function as
King residence
As museum to save quality artifacts and important gift especially from europe
Shinto architecture
 shinto shrine was a place of natural beauty (rocks, gnarled trees, that kind of thing) marked off with a boundary of smaller rocks or a rope
Existence of KAMI (Sacred spirits) existence of kami in all natural objects (mountain ,trees,rocks,streams,,
The kami can be divided into two main categories:
 kami of natural phenomena (the object kami) and
 kami of mythical or historical people (the active kami). 
 Shrines were erected to house both kinds of kami and accommodate rituals and celebrations intended to maintain harmonious unity between the deities and man.
 resident kami might be represented by symbols or sanctified objects.
Under the influence of Buddhism, kami can also, though more rarely, be represented by statues.
It beliefs
To live in harmony with nature
Honesty towards nature
Never ending world,present central is central
SHINTO SHRINES architecture
Inner shrine –royal kami
Outer kami –local kami

Torii gate
The torii (it means 'bird roost') was the standard marker of an entrance to a shinto shrine, and is one of the distinctive symbols of Japan.
Tamagaki fencing
Komainu lion figures
Pathways marked by stone lanterns
Ise shrine10 timber kuotsugi
Elevated floor
Surrounding verandah
Stilts set directly into the ground
Unfinished timber material
Thatch roofing
Chigi,crossed and rafters
Temizusha )Small roofted structure,
small pond )Function to purify mind and body
shinto  also has torii as purification,the sacred and profane
it divides to 2 type
SHIMMEI TORII-kasagi and nuki
MYOJIN TORII –shimaki and ise style,pentagonal shape

Square and rectangular floors
Rounded corners
Kaya grass
Warehouse,storage house,
Raised platform,and 4 platform
Square pit house,named neighbourhood Tokyo
2storey building,six and 7 posts raised platform
Floors building,six and 7 posts(raised platform)
Irimoya (flared sides)
Floors,doors and slanted supporting glass

The word "Minangkabau" can actually be interpreted as a compound of the words menang (win) and kerbau (buffalo). This derives from a local legends that people relates that a buffalo fight was arranged by the locals and the people of the influential kingdom of Majapahit
The loacls'buffalo was the winner and since that time they have called themselves the "buffalo winners", Minangkabau, as a proud testament to their strength and courage. The houses are called rumah gadang (large house) and are not inhabited by differents families, but by three or four generations who come from one ancestor and thus a rumah gadang is also a family unit, and each of the Minangkabau identifies completely with his or her own rumah gadang.
Situated in minangkabau
Called by minangkabau people as rumah bagonjong
House with horn like roof
It is traditional homes (Indonesian rumah adat)\
To reflect culture and values of minangkabau  society
As a residence
A hall for family meetings
For ceremonial activities
Rumah gadang owned by women of the family
(matrilineal)relation family from mother side
Characteristics of rumah gadang
Have curve roof structure,horn like roof
Multi tiered(many windows)
shuttered windows,
upswept gables (atap pelana)
incised wall (dinding bertakuk)
profuse painted (cat besar dan melimpah_
floral carvings
Rumah gadang usually refers to larger,communal homes,smaller single residence,very  batten and rafters
Long house,rectangular plan
Wooden piles
Construction from wood
Cross beam construction

Built on top double terrace
On the first floor of the pagoda are 4 groups of day statues seen on  each of its four rides
The central pillar represents the world exist joining heaven & earth
The separate stories stands for the several terraces of the Buddhist universe’
The nine rings at the top represent the various heaven of the god
The great sanchi stupa
Ashoka Maurya most famous Buddhist ruler in India
Stupa were mounds covering the relic of Buddha or his followers(holy place)
Symbol of his final release from cycle of birth and rebirth(final dying) also cosmic symbol
Hemispherical shape represent the world egg
4 gateways are  surrounded by torana
East torana show depiction of Buddha’s journey toward enlightment
North torana
Crowned by a wheel of law illustrates the miracles associated with Buddha
Southern gateway
The most important / oldest
Depict the first sermon give by the Buddha at sarnath
Western gateway
Gateway depict the scenes from the incarnation of the Buddha
Torana around stupa represent love,peace,trust,courage

Balinese compound house
More assemble to batak house an
Family temple is the place to worship th
Balinese person must lie in a certain direction to sleep.’ This is because the layout of the house itself is following based on the natural and spiritual elements.
 the horizontal axes are mainly the important directions to locate the layout because it’s depicted between the mountains and the sea.
The direction of the mountains is holy and prestigious especially from the highest and holiest volcano, Gunung Agung.

The main characteristic of Balinese house often relates to its location.

, ‘Kaja means upstream, or towards the mountain,
kelod downstream or towards the sea.
Kangin(east) and kauh(west) are also vital for them.
the direction of kaja and kelod varies according to a village’s location.Kaja is the south in north Bali,but to north in south Bali.’
the design of Balinese house is done by old manual and manuscript called Asta Kosala Kosali.’
‘With regard to the vertical dimension, the three-dimensional or the physical realization of any architectural building must follow the concept if tri annga,
i.e. the structure must contain head( roof),body (walls and space), and feet(building foundation)
representing the religious values of “high,pure” or utama, “middle” or madia and “low” or nista.’ 

The Balinese house is made up by space hierarchy.

 ‘the place for the worship of the gods is located at the highest space hierarchy which is located at north-east.’ It is also known as the head (ulu).
the adjacent south-east corner is considered to be the abode of evil and is always left empty.
The entrance is facing to the auspicious south-west.
 Next, the granary(lumbung) and the kitchen( paon) are placed in the south-west corner also known as the feet (teben). ‘An important feature of compound house design is the communal outdoor space (natah) –
a connection between the indoor and outdoor space-in the middle of the compound,
the dweller’s centre of orientation.’ 

Besides, the open pavilion (bale) is one of the important spaces in Balinese house.

It’s distinguished from one another by the number of pillars (sasaka).
 ‘There are three distinct sleeping quarters in Balinese house.For example, the bale duah (guest’s room),the menten bandung (the room for parents, grandparents and unmarried girls) and the bale danging (the adults quarters).
The bale danging is used to celebrate such important rites of passage as wedding and tooth-filing.’ Moreover, the rice barn is the only building that rose on piles. Normally, the piles are topped with large wooden disc below the main body of the granary to prevent rats and mice. Indeed, the buildings used stone, unfired bricks,woods,bamboo and grasses for the materials.

However, the layout of the Batak Toba house is different compare to Balinese house. There are basically 3 types of building customarily in the layout which are the house (rumah), rice granaries (sopo) and assembly houses (bale).

‘The Batak house compound
 normally is originated in groups of ten or less which constitutes a small villages.’
It is located side by side with their front gables facing the village street.

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